로마협정 50주년 EU 기념행사 세미나 기조연설 (2007.3.27) / 영문
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|The European Union, the Korean Peninsula and East Asia
Keynote speech by Dr. Kim Dae-jung, former President of Korea
EU Seminar on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Treaties of Rome
March 27, 2007
Dr. Brian McDonald, Head of the Delegation of the European Commission, Dr. Norbert Baas, German Ambassador to Korea and other ambassadors from the European Union!
Dr. Hubert Pirker, Chairman of the EU-Korean Peninsula Committee, Dr. Lee Kyung-tae, President of Korea Institute for International Economic Policy and distinguished guests from home and abroad!
Expressing my heartfelt congratulations on the EU seminar on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, I would also like to express my gratitude to you for inviting me to give a keynote speech.
The history of the European Union provides much inspiration and valuable lessons to not only the European people but also all people around the world.
First, the EU overcame the Cold War and different ideologies that existed in Europe to bring forth a continent based on freedom, human rights as well as market economy and justice.
Second, the EU started from six members to develop into an integration of Europe with 27 member countries, shifting from an era of division and conflict to an era of integration and cooperation.
Third, the EU brought a stable system of peace to a continent that was blooded by the First and Second World Wars, setting a huge example and teaching a valuable lesson to all the people who live in areas of conflict around the world.
Fourth, with its soft diplomacy and active expansion of trade, the EU has not only made a huge contribution to international cooperation but also influenced the resolution of international conflicts through non-military means.
Fifth, by agreeing to reduce greenhouse gases by 20% until 2020, the EU is at the forefront in efforts to resolve the environmental issue which is threatening the survival of human kind.
Korea and the EU are far apart in distance but very close and deep in relations.
First, the member states of the EU not only actively supported the establishment of the Republic of Korea through the United Nations but also provided assistance through military and non-military means during the Korean War. The Korean people still remember this with gratitude.
Second, not only did EU help Korea in its efforts to overcome the financial crisis, but it also has invested 40.5 billion dollars in Korea−even more than Japan-running first in terms of investment volume. Moreover, the EU is the second largest trading partner of Korea following China. Korea has been designated FTA Priority Foreign Country (PFC) of the EU, and successful negotiations will begin soon.
Third, most EU member countries, with cooperation with South Korea, have acknowledged North Korea as a member of the international community, greatly contributing to the stable policy of South Korea towards North Korea. We have also had much inspiration and learned lessons for inter-Korean development through the reunification of Germany and the history of EU integration.
Fourth, we hope that when the six-party talk framework is made into a permanent organization for peace in Northeast Asia, the EU which has close relations with both the South and the North can participate in whatever way possible. I hope that the valuable experience of European integration can help the stability, peace and prosperity of the Korean Peninsula.
East Asia has a lot to learn from the European Union. And East Asia also needs the support of the European Union. The integration of Europe provides a huge lesson for the future of East Asia. We must move ahead for the integration of East Asia with vision, patience and will as EU did in the past.
At the 1998 ASEAN Plus Three Summit in Hanoi, Vietnam, I emphasized the need for an East Asian community and proposed the establishment of the East Asian Vision Group (EAVG). Since then, through continuous talks, the first East Asia Summit (EAS) was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2005. Though such efforts are just a start, if we make endless efforts while learning from the historical lessons of the EU, I believe that we will follow the path of success of the EU.
Successful integration of the EU was possible because Germany showed sincere actions, focusing on atonement and repentance on its pastime atrocities, offering compensation and educating its young people on its past history. To see a similarly successful era of integration in East Asia, Japan with its similar history of pastime war crimes must learn from and follow the success of Germany. Along with such a newly born Japan, we hope to pursue active cooperation for peace and prosperity of the Korean Peninsula, East Asia and the whole world.
As mentioned before, we and the European Union share close historical relations and there is a need today and in the future for further cooperation and mutual development. In this respect, I hope that the organization and role of the current Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) can be much more strengthened to enable the development of a real and rewarding cooperative relationship between the EU and East Asia. Moreover, I also believe the summit meeting of the ASEM should be held annually rather than once every two years as it is currently being held, and that a secretariat should also be established.
The 50-year history and current reality of the EU grants us so many lessons and such a huge need for cooperation. I would like to ask for more interest and cooperation on the Korean Peninsula and East Asia from the EU and its member countries so that peace, prosperity and justice can be achieved on the Korean Peninsula and East Asia.
Next, I would like to say a few words on the current six-party talks. Since the first North Korean nuclear crisis in 1993, I have consistently emphasized the following.
“North Korea must completely give up its nuclear weapons and accept thorough inspection. The United States must have direct dialogue with North Korea, guarantee its security, lift economic sanctions and normalize relations with North Korea. Then, the North Korean nuclear issue will be resolved for sure.”
In fact, through close cooperation with the Clinton administration, I succeeded in bringing the North Korean nuclear issue close to resolution during my presidency. However, with the inauguration of the Bush administration the United States refused to have direct dialogue with North Korea and even went as far as to call for regime change. And so the U.S.-North Korean relations saw no progress whatsoever and the situation deteriorated instead. North Korea withdrew from the NPT and expelled the inspectors of the IAEA. North Korea also invalidated the Agreed Framework in Geneva, abandoned the missile moratorium and even conducted nuclear tests.
The whole world was shocked and enraged at North Korea’s nuclear tests and many people thought that we would fall to a catastrophic end. However I strongly emphasized the following.
“This is not the end. There is a way. If the United States pursues direct dialogue with North Korea, resolves the issue of the North Korean funds in the Banco Delta Asia (BDA), provides security assurances, lifts economic sanctions and normalizes relations with North Korea, then North Korea will agree to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.” Fortunately, the situation is currently going towards this direction.
Ladies and gentlemen!
We have high hopes for the future of the six-party talks. However on one hand, pessimistic views still linger. Then how will the six-party talks proceed? I have firm faith. The North Korean nuclear issue will be resolved and the six-party talks will achieve success. The reasons are as follows.
First regarding from the standpoint of the United States, the United States is in a situation where it has no choice but to resolve the North Korean nuclear issue through dialogue. Though the United States and Japan have been imposing economic sanctions on North Korea, sanctions without the participation of China have not been effective. Nor is the United States in a situation to take military actions against North Korea like Iraq. The United States currently has its hands tied in the Middle East, leaving it no room to suppress North Korea using military force. The use of military measures will also bring opposition from not only South Korea but also most of the other countries of the six-party talks. Moreover, the situation in the United States greatly changed when the Democrats won in the mid-term elections last year. The Democrats are calling for engagement policy towards North Korea just as the Clinton administration had pursued in the past.
Apart from these reasons, President Bush has a desperate political need to see success at least on the Korean Peninsula. Now, President Bush’s policy towards North Korea is seeing great change. The U.S. is saying that it would have direct dialogue with North Korea and accept security assurances and normalization of relations. I wholeheartedly welcome and support such realistic change of policy of President Bush.
For North Korea, also, there is a desperate need to resolve the nuclear issue at this given time. North Korea now has the chance to achieve what it had longed for; receiving security assurances, lifting of economic sanctions from its economy, and normalization of U.S.-North Korean relations. There was also recent agreement on the BDA issue. Therefore, North Korea will not let this opportunity pass.
If North Korea does not give up its nuclear weapons despite such concession of the United States, China, which had opposed to North Korea’s nuclear weapons from the start, and even South Korea might decide to participate in economic sanctions towards North Korea. North Korea cannot afford to overlook this. Also, North Korea’s possession of nuclear weapons could evoke Japan and Taiwan to develop nuclear weapons. This would be a nightmare for China.
North Korea has repeatedly emphasized that, “the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula is the last teaching by will of the late North Korean leader, Kim Il-sung.” The teaching of Kim Il-sung is regarded as the unbreakable truth in North Korea. The reason why the Kim Jung-il regime is repeatedly saying this is to reduce the discontent that could occur among the North Korean people when North Korea gives up its nuclear weapons.
As aforementioned, I have high hopes that the United States and North Korea can have a give-and-take negotiation through direct dialogue to reap success in the six-party talks. Such agreement will be one that mutually benefits both sides. And the warm rays of peace will shine on the Korean Peninsula. There will be huge progress in all areas of inter-Korean relations such as politics, economy, society and culture. In particular, the conclusion of the peace agreement that will end the state of war on the Korean Peninsula will go into progress.
We do not want unification through force like Vietnam, nor unification through absorption like Germany. Under the three principles of peaceful coexistence, peaceful exchange and peaceful unification, we must take the steps of first, South-North confederation, second, South-North federation and third, complete unification. We will coexist peacefully with North Korea and when the affinity between the people is recovered and the North Korean economy sees much improvement and when both sides feel reassured, then we will pursue unification. It would probably take 10 to 20 years.
I hope that all of you EU member countries who have spared no support for the independence, stability, freedom and economic development of Korea have deep understanding on the process of unification of the Korean Peninsula and continue to provide active support.
Once again, I would like to express my wholehearted congratulations on the EU seminar on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome and extend my best wishes for the future success of the European Union.